“Historia ime” publishes the results of the monitoring of hate speech and discriminatory language used in Albanian online media
The purpose of this project supported by Civil Rights Defenders is to evaluate the usage of aesthetic norms and concerns related to discriminatory language and hate speech in the Albanian online media. During the monitoring process was paid close attention to the representation of marginalized groups and monitoring how much the human rights are respected.
Comparison between different media was not done during the monitoring. The media picked up for the monitoring were based on their interactivity, post-reach from the viewers, their editorial principles and also for the impact which they give to the public opinion and mass media.
The monitoring process was held between the periods November-December 2016 from the Pro LGBT Organization and “Historia Ime” newsroom. The 4 online media which were part of this monitoring process are:
- Examples of online news titles containing hate speech and discriminatory language
Around 21% of the articles contain hate speech and discrimination language.
- Percentage of monitored articles containing hate speech and/ or discriminatory language (21%)
The monitoring team conducted the results and evaluated the discrimination language and the one of hatred language, expressed through the article content, and also from the multimedia elements (video, photo, audio) attached within the published articles.
- Hate speech and/ or discriminatory language directed toward groups 43% or individuals 57%
Approximately 57% of the cases contain hate speech/ discrimination language toward specific individuals, meanwhile the other 43% contains social stigma towards different communities ( LGBT, Roma community, women, political-oriented and ethnic groups).
It should be emphasized the increasing number of cases where marginalized communities were discriminated by attacking the representatives of these communities.
The monitoring team classified these cases as mere hate speech and discrimination language towards marginalized groups and communities.
After the conduction of the monitoring process, the results show that in the majority of cases 73% of “victims” of the discrimination and/ or hate speech used in the online media are women and only 27% are man.
- Hate speech and/ or discriminatory language directed towards women (73%) and man (27%)
The average age of the attacked and discriminated individuals and groups runs between 35- 49 year-old, esteemed in 32% of the cases.
- Victims of hate speech and/ or discriminatory language dividend by age in %
The discrimination language and hate speech faced during the monitoring process is based in the below motives:
- Gender 41%
- Ethnicity (mainly xenophobia oriented towards Serbian, Greek citizen and Roma community) 22%
- Political beliefs 17%
- Sexual orientation and/ or gender identity 11%
6. Social groups or minorities which are target of hate speech and/ or discriminatory language
During the monitoring process, special attention was paid to the understanding of the ways which hate speech and discriminatory language is expressed:
- The usage of inaccurate facts, over-exaggerations, delusional facts
- Flawed argumentation ( bringing the subject out of context, distorting the image of the political opponent )
- Discrimination and separation language US vs THEM
- Dehumanizing metaphors ( invoking the image of war, criminality, biblical figures, animals, diseases etc)
- Usage of language which fosters violence
7. Forms in which hate speech and/ or discriminatory language is expressed in online media
The monitoring results conclude that the most used form of hate speech and discriminatory language is through fact distortion, false blaming s and allegations. The majority of the victims from these discrimination compromises of individuals related to violent incidents and victims of domestic violence.
The monitoring team paid close attention to the authorship of these articles filled with hate speech and/or discriminatory language. The name or the initials of the author, writer or journalist do not show up at the end of these articles. These cases are categorized as hate speech and/ or discrimination from the newsroom which they are published.